Republic of The Gambia , one of the West African countries. It is the smallest country on the mainland of Africa and bordered by the north, east and south of Senegal , and is infiltrated by the Gambia River, which flows into the Atlantic Ocean bordering the country to the west; its border is defined to extend 10 kilometers on both sides of the Gambia River.

Historians believe that the history of settlement on the banks of the Gambia River began 2,000 years ago. In addition, the Carthaginian sailor Hanu wrote about the Gambia in his writings on his travels in 470 BC.

Thousands of Malian, Malian and Fulani tribes entered it in the 13th century to settle on its plains and on the banks of the river. In the 14th century, Gambia became part of the Islamic empire of Mali, which was based in the north-east of the country. The Portuguese first saw the Gambia River in 1455 . In the 17th century the British and French established small settlements on the river, and slavery was the main source of income until it was abolished in 1807 . After the British-French rivalry for the region intensified, Britain took control under the Versailles Agreement (1783) of the site. In 1843 Gambia became a colony of the British crown

It gained independence from the United Kingdom in 1965 ; as a constitutional monarchy within the British Commonwealth , Daouda Jawara of the Progressive People's Party assumed the premiership at the head of a multi-party democracy, and in 1970 the country became a republic and Jawara assumed the presidency. In 1981 , a coup attempt was thwarted with Senegal's help. A short-term union between the Gambia and Senegal, named Senegambia , was formed between 1982 and 1989 . In 1991 , the two countries signed a treaty of cooperation and friendship.

In 1994 there was a military coup that toppled the president and halted political activity, but the 1996 constitution and the presidential elections followed by a parliamentary vote in 1997 restored my name to civil status. The country then held another round of presidential and legislative elections in late 2001 and early 2002.On December 11, 2015 , President Yahya Jameh announced the transformation of his country into an Islamic republic in a move he said was aimed at getting rid of his country further from its colonial past.He said that as long as Muslims represent the majority in the country (90%), the Gambia cannot "continue the colonial heritage." He assured the Christian minority of respect for their religion and freedom of belief. He also said that women have the right to wear what they want and that there is no religious police in his countrythe most important cities 

The Gambia is a small country whose borders are discovered from the banks of the Gambia River . The widest point in the country does not exceed 48 km, and the total area of ​​the country 11,300 km 2. 1,300 km2 of country area covered with water. All borders of the country of 740 km share with Senegal except the 80 km west coast of the Atlantic coast. The Gambia is the smallest country in the continent of Africa 

All current borders were defined after the agreement between the United Kingdom and France in 1889 . France gave 320 km of the Gambia River to set a border. The demarcation of the border began in 1891 , and the process of drawing the border took about 15 years.

The Gambia's territory stretches as a tongue, created by flooding of the Gambia River, which travels its length.This tongue stretches for a length of 300 km, with a maximum width of no more than 50 km.The river originates from Guinea and takes a winding road through the territory of the Gambia before finally draining into the Atlantic Ocean .

The swamps of tropical shrubs spread along the banks of the river from the coast to the center of the Gambia. Behind these swamps are areas that harden during the dry seasons, while turning into swamps during the rainy season. Tidal salt water is collected near the coast and mixed with the water carried by the floods of the Gambia River. This salt water, called Bantu Faro, spills over the soil and stretches behind sandy plains, on both sides of the river towards the territory of Senegal . Inland during the rainy season and exploited in rice cultivation. The Gambia's climate is generally tropical , with hot, wet, rainy from June to November , and cool, dry from November to May