In 1851, Scottish missionary David Livingstone crossed Zambia from the south and spent 20 years discovering the area. In 1911, Cecil Rhodes, the British company South Africa, named Northern Rhodesia. In 1924, the British government took over the administration of Northern Rhodesia and appointed a governor. Copper mining has been known in the region for hundreds of years, and when abundant copper ores were discovered in the late 1920s, many Europeans rushed to the area. Ten years later, mining became an important industry in the region. In 1953, Britain established a union between Northern Rhodesia, Southern Rhodesia and Nyasaland. Africans opposed the European Union's hegemony of the minority in southern Rhodesia. In 1963, Britain announced the dissolution of the Union. On 24 October 1964, Northern Rhodesia became the independent state of Zambia.Kenneth Kaunda was elected president in 1964, and was re-elected in 1968, 1973, 1978, 1983 and 1988. The United National Independence Party remained the only political party from 1972 to 1990. In October 1991, the RCD won the elections and Frederick Chiluba won the presidency. Kaunda stepped down as party leader in December 1991. After the dissolution of the union, Southern Rhodesia was known as Rhodesia. In 1965, Rhodesia declared independence a challenge to Britain. Relations between Zambia and Rhodesia have been strained, with the white minority government refusing to give the African majority a voice in government. Zambia had serious economic problems in the 1970s and 1980s.Rodicia banned the transport of Zambia's goods through the territory of Rhodesia, thereby depriving Zambia of its main outlet to the sea.Rodicia quickly lifted the ban, but until 1978, Zambia refused to transport its goods via Rhodesia.Africans dominated Rhodesia in 1980. The country was renamed Zimbabwe, and relations between Zambia and Zimbabwe improved. Zambia's economy has also suffered from low copper prices on world markets and low copper reserves. In 1990, Zambia allowed the work of opposition political parties. In 1991, the election results won the Democratic Movement for Multiparty Movement led by Frederick Chiluba, who defeated Kaunda. The Movement won the most seats in the National Assembly. In 1996, Chiluba was re-elected.The Movement won the most seats in the National Assembly. In 1996, Chiluba was re-elected.The Movement won the most seats in the National Assembly. In 1996, Chiluba was re-elected.