Saudi Arabia Officially Saudi Arabia is the largest country in the Middle East and is located in the south-west of Asia and forms the largest part of the Arabian Peninsula with an area of about 2 million square kilometers. It is bordered to the north by Iraq and Jordan, bordered by Kuwait to the northeast, and to the east by Qatar and the United Arab Emirates, as well as by Bahrain, which is connected to Saudi Arabia through the King Fahd Causeway on the Arabian Gulf . The south is bordered by Yemen , Oman by the southeast, From the west.
The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia is currently the product and heritage of these historical entities. The first of these entities was the Emirate of Dir'iyyah , founded by Muhammad ibn Saud in 1157 AH / 1744 and remained until Ibrahim Pasha led the army of the Ottoman ruler of Egypt.   This phase is referred to as the " first Saudi state ," but it was not long after the fall of the first state until Turki bin Abdullah bin Mohammed established a new emirate of the Saud family in Najd , Taken from Riyadh capital and continued until the rulers of the Emirate of Hail took the Emirate of Riyadh from the Al Saud in 1308 AH / 1891 , referred to as "the second Saudi state" . Later, Abdul Aziz Al Saud, the young man, recovered from the hands of the Rashid family in 1902 , and controlled the whole of Najd 1921 and was characterized by the Sultanate of Najd until Abdul Aziz succeeded in extracting the Kingdom of Hejaz from the hands of the Hashemites. He became king of Hijaz in January 1926 , The name of the Kingdom of the King of Najd, and called the areas controlled by the Kingdom of the Hijaz and Najd and its accessories , and remained the name until Abdul Aziz consolidated all the areas controlled by one entity, and that was in 1351 H / September 23, 1932 and declared the name " Saudi".
Saudi Arabia currently consists of 13 administrative districts , each of which is divided into a number of governorates, the number of which varies from one region to another. The governorate is divided into centers that are administratively linked to the governorate or the emirate. There is the Holy Mosque located in Mecca , and the Prophet's Mosque in Medina , which are considered the most important holy places for Muslims .
Saudi Arabia is a member of the Gulf Cooperation Council, the League of Arab States, the United Nations , the Non-Aligned Movement , the Muslim World League, the Organization of Islamic Cooperation, the Group of Twenty , the International Monetary Fund , the World Trade Organization and the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries .
Saudi Arabia enjoys a stable political and economic position in general and its oil economy as it has the second largest oil reserves and six gas reserves,and the largest crude oil exporter in the world, which accounts for nearly 90% of exports. The Kingdom ranks 19th among the world's largest economies, One of the most influential forces politically and economically in the world, for its Islamic position, its economic wealth, its control over oil prices, its global supply, and its large media presence in a number of satellite channels and print newspapers