Ethiopia (officially, the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia ) a landlocked country in the Horn of Africa , with its capital Addis Ababa (New Flower), Africa's second most populous country after Nigeria and the tenth largest by area. It is bordered to the east by Djibouti , Somalia , to the north by the State of Eritrea , to the northwest by Sudan , to the west by South Sudan and to the south-west by Kenya .Ethiopia is home to the ancient kingdom of Aksum and in Ethiopia the oldest human structure found 4.4 million years old. . It has the longest historical record of independence in Africa. It was colonized only from 1936 to 1941, when Italian troops invaded in its campaign against East Africa before leaving the region after the Anglo-Ethiopian agreement was signed in December 1944 ..