Bohemia ( German : Böhmen Listen ( ? · Info ) , Latin : Bohemia ) Historic region of Central Europe . It occupies the western and most central parts of the Czech Republic . It covers an area of 52,750 km and is home to 6.25 million of the 10.3 million inhabitants of the Czech Republic. It is bordered to the west, northwest and southwest by Germany , to the northeast by Poland , and Austria to the south and the Moravian region to the east. The Sudet Mountains and the Shumava Mountains form the natural boundaries of the area in the north. In the Czech language there is no difference between the words Bohemian and Czech, both of which are synonymous with the other. One of the most famous dances in Bohemia is polka .