Canada , officially the Union of Canada , is a North American country consisting of 10 provinces and three counties . Is located in the northern part of the continent and extends from the Atlantic Ocean in the east to the Pacific Ocean in the west and extends north in the Arctic Ocean .Canada is the second largest country in terms of total area . Canada's common border with theUnited States from the south and north-west is the longest in the world.
The territory of Canada has been inhabited for thousands of years by various indigenous groups .By the late 15th century the British and French campaigns began to explore the region and then settle it along the Atlantic coast. France surrendered nearly all of its colonies in North America in 1763 after the Seven Years War . In 1867, with the union of three British colonies in North America through a confederation, Canada was formed as a sovereign federation with four provinces. This began a process in which Canada expanded and expanded its autonomy from the United Kingdom. This independence was evidenced by Westminster legislation in 1931 and culminated in Canada's 1982 law that cut Canada's legal dependence on the British Parliament .
Canada is a federal state governed by a representative democratic system and constitutional monarchy where Queen Elizabeth II is the leader of the state . The Canadian nation is a bilingual nation where English and French are official languages at the federal level. Canada is one of the most developed countries in the world . It has a diverse economy and relies on its abundant natural resources and on trade, especially with the United States, which has a long and complex relationship. Canada is a member of the Group of Seven industrialized nations, the Group of Eight, the G20, NATO , OECD , WTO, Commonwealth, Francophonie , OAS, APEC and the United Nations . Canada has one of the highest standards of living in the world, with the Human Development Index ranking eighth in the world