Australia , or the Commonwealth of Australia , a country located in the southern hemisphere ofSoutheast Asia and the Western Pacific , with its capital Canberra . The continent is surrounded by the Timor Sea, the Arbora Sea, the Straits of Tours, the Coral Sea, the Sea of Tasman , the South Pass, and the South and West by the Indian Ocean .
Before the Europeans occupied the continent in the late 18th century, the continent was inhabited by indigenous Australians who belonged to nearly 250 language families . After being discovered by the Dutch in 1606 , Britain captured the eastern half of Australia in 1770 , the first full official takeover of Australia on January 26, 1788 , when the population grew steadily in subsequent decades and the rest of the continent was discovered. The British Crown Prince .
On January 1, 1901 , the six colonies became a federation and the Commonwealth of Australia.Since this federal union, Australia has a stable liberal democratic political system that is the Commonwealth system . Australia's population is about 24,899,100 million. About 60% of the population is concentrated in or close to state capitals such as Sydney, Melbourne, Brisbane,Perth and Adelaide . Is the capital city of Canberra , in the Australian Capital Territory. About 57% of the population lives either in Victoria or New South Wales .
Australia is a developed country, ranking 13th in economic progress and 16th in the ranking of the 2010-2011 World Economic Forum.Aus tralia is ranked in advanced positions in many international classifications: human development, quality of life, health care, life expectancy, public education, economic freedom, protection of civil liberties and political rights Australia is a member of the United Nations, the G-20, the Commonwealth, Anzos, the Organization for Economic Development, APEC , the World Trade Organization and the Pacific Islands Forum.Australia is the first in the quality of living standard outside of Europe.
More than 80 percent of the population of Australia are of European descent, and most of the rest are Asian ethnicities, with a smaller minority of indigenous people . Following the repeal of the White Australia policy in 1973, many government initiatives were created to promote and promote ethnic harmony based on the policy of multiculturalism . Although English is the most widely used language or popular language in Australia as well as in government institutions, it is not the official language of the country, but it has been referred to as a semi-official language