(532 - 589 AH / 1138 - 1193 AD), known as Salah al-Din al-Ayyubi, a military commander who established the Ayyubid state that united Egypt, the Levant, the Hijaz, Tihama and Yemen under the flag Abbasid, after he had destroyed the Fatimid Caliphate, which lasted 262 years. Saladin led several campaigns and battles against the Franks and other European crusaders in order to restore the Holy Land, which the Crusaders had taken over in the late 11th century. Eventually, he managed to recover most of Palestine and Lebanon, including the city of Jerusalem, Holy defeat in the Battle of Hittin. Salah al-Din says in the doctrine of Ahl al-Sunnah wa'l-Jama'ah, and narrated that Abd al-Qadir al-Jilani called him when he saw him in the blessing during a "hidden visit" to Najmuddin Ayyub and his family Baghdad in 533 AH / 1138 AD.  Some scholars, such as al-Maqrizi, and some later historians, said that he was a Ash'ari, and that he was associated with the Sufi scholars who took the opinion and advice and showed the Ash'ari doctrine. Saladin is famous for its tolerance and humane treatment of its enemies. He is therefore one of the most respected and respected people in the Eastern Islamic and European Christian worlds. Crusader historians wrote about his prowess in a number of positions, most notably the siege of Karak Castle in Mu'ab. King of England, Richard I, the "Lion Heart". Instead of becoming a hated person in Western Europe, he became a symbol of equestrian and bravery, and was mentioned in a number of English and French stories and poems of that era.