officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan ( in Urdu : اسلامی جمہوریۂ پکستان), is a sovereign state in South Asia . With a population of more than 205 million people, it is the fifth most populous country and covers an area of 881,913 square kilometers (340,509 square miles), the 33rd in the world. Pakistan has -1046 kilometers (650 mi) of coastline along the Arabian Sea and the Gulf of Oman in the south and is bordered by India from the east, Afghanistan to the west, Iran in the southwest and China in the far northeast, respectively. It is separated from Tajikistan by a narrow corridor and Akhan Afghanistan in the north, and also shares the maritime border with Oman .
The territory that now forms Pakistan was once home to many ancient civilizations, including the Neolithic and Bronze Age Indus Valley civilizations, and was later home to kingdoms ruled by followers of different religions and cultures, including Hindus , India Greeks, Muslims, Turku-Mongols Afghans and Sikhs . The region was ruled by many empires and dynasties, including the Mauryan of the Indian Empire , the Achaemenid Persian Empire, Alexander of Macedon , the Arab Umayyad Caliphate , the Mughal Empire, the Durrani Empire, the Sikh Empire, and the British Empire. As a result of Pakistan's movement led by Muhammad Ali Jinnah and the Subcontinent's struggle for independence, Pakistan was established in 1947 as an independent state for Muslims from areas in the eastern and western Indian subcontinent where there was a Muslim majority. Initially sovereignty, Pakistan adopted a new constitution in 1956, becoming an Islamic republic. The civil war of 1971 resulted in the separation of East Pakistan as the new country of Bangladesh .
Pakistan is a federal parliamentary republic consisting of four regions that are governed in a federal way. It is an ethnically and linguistically diverse country, with a similar difference in its geography and wildlife. Regional and intermediate power, Pakistan has the seventh largest armed forces in the world, is also a nuclear power as well as a state with declared nuclear weapons, the only country in the Islamic world, and the second in South Asia, to be this center. It has a semi-industrial economy with a well integrated agriculture sector, and its economy is the 26th largest in the world in terms of purchasing power and 45th largest in terms of nominal GDP and is also distinguished among emerging economies and major growth of the world.
The post-independence history of Pakistan has been marked by periods of military rule, political instability and conflicts with neighboring India . The country continues to face difficult problems, including overpopulation, terrorism, poverty, illiteracy and corruption . Despite these factors Pakistan ranks 16th in the Happy Planet Index 2012. It is a member of the United Nations, the Association of Nations, and the following eleven economies, ECO, UFC, D8, Cairns Group, Kyoto Protocol, Covenant, RCD, UNCHR, Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank, Group of 11, CPFTA, Group 24, G20 Developing Countries, Economic and Social Council, OIC Member States, Association and CERN Founders.