Georgia: Is a sovereign state in the Caucasus region of Eurasia . Located at the crossroads of Eastern Europe with Western Asia , is bordered on the west by the Black Sea , on the north by Russia , on the south by Turkey and Armenia , and on the east by Azerbaijan . Georgia covers an area of 69,700 square kilometers and has a population of 4,385,000.
The history of Georgia can be traced back to the kingdoms of Colchis and Iberia , and it was one of the first countries to convert to Christianity in the 4th century. Georgia reached the height of its political and economic glory during the reign of King David and Queen Tamar in the 11th and 12th century. At the beginning of the 19th century, Georgia joined the Russian Empire . Shortly after independence following the Russian Revolution of 1917 , the Bolshevik armies invaded Georgia in 1921 and annexed it to the Soviet Union in 1922. Georgia regained its independence in 1991. Like many countries that were independent of the Soviet Union, Georgia suffered an economic crisis and internal unrest during the 1990s. After the flower revolution, a policy leadership that introduced democratic reforms emerged, but foreign investment and economic growth that came soon after the revolution slowed down.
The Georgian Constitution provides for representative democracy (although Freedom House has stated that the country is “not an electoral democracy”) - this is still a subject of debate among the Georgian authorities - organized as a unitary, semi-presidential republic . Countries in the Human Development Index , a member of the United Nations , the European Council, the World Trade Organization , the Black Sea Economic Cooperation Organization , the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE) , the Democratic Choice Association , Guam Organization for Democratic and Economic Development , and the Asian Development Bank . Georgia to join the Federation European d and NATO . International Georgia 's obligations are controlled according to the Committee USHelsinki as an associate member of the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe . Georgia has entered into an armed conflict in 2008 against Russia groups and separatist armed in South Ossetia . Manifested that the conflict end in Russia 's recognition of the independence of Ossetia Only Nicaragua , Venezuela , the Syrian Arab Republic , Nauru , and the de facto independent Transnistria followed suit on August 28, 2008. The Georgian parliament passed legislation on August 28, 2008, which considers Abkhazia and South Ossetia under Russian occupation.
The Georgians call themselves Kartvelibi (ქართველები), their territory is Sakartvili ((საქართველო), which means Kartvili, and their language is Kartoli (ქართული). According to Georgian accounts, the Carthaginian people originally belonged to Kartlos (grandson of Japheth the son of Noah ). The name Sakartvello consists of two parts. The root of Kartville-J (ქართველ-ი) is known as the inhabitant of the heart of the central Georgian region of Kartli - Iberia which belongs to classical and Byzantine sources.
The ancient Greeks ( Strabon , Herodotus , Plutarch , Homer , etc.) and the Romans ( Titus Levius , Cornelius Tacitus , etc.) called the early East Georgians the Iberians and the inhabitants of the early West Kulchians .
Like other Caucasian peoples, Georgians are not part of any ethnic group in Europe and Asia. Georgian , the most commonly used South Caucasian language, is not classified as Indo-European , Turkish or Semitic . Today, undoubtedly, the Georgian or Kartvili people are the result of the integration of indigenous peoples with immigrants to the Caucasus from the remote Anatolia in ancient times. In the ancient Jewish novel, Josephus mentions Georgians as Iberians and was also called Tubal Tubal.
The name Georgia and Georgians appeared in Western Europe in many yearbooks in the beginning of the Middle Ages. The French historian Jacques de Vitry and the English traveler Sir John Mandeville stated that the reason for naming Georgians was relative to St. George. In the first month of 2004, Georgia adopted the pentagonal flag , the flag of St. George. There are those who argue that science was used in Georgia in the Middle Ages starting in the fifth century AD